Journey to Tauranga....
Wednesday, August 13, 2014
Monday, August 4, 2014
|Sorry, a very bleary photo from the Listener August 9 2014|
This is an interesting three-page article on the issues behind my new book, Journey to a Hanging.
It appears in 9 August 21014 Listener and is by journalist Sally Blundell.
I was pleased with the title 'Witness for the Defence' in that implies I am advocating for Kereopa Te Rau.
I have often wondered what his iwi think of my book. In my heart I feel they will be pleased as it does provide an idea of the inhumanity of his trial as well as taking you inside his possible point of view.
In time they will provide their own version of his story, which will be very interesting.
At some point I'll write about the difficult negotiations I had with Kereopa Te Rau's iwi. These never came to a
In the meantime there is my book....
(I have to admit, as a writer, I find talking off the cuff to a journalist quite demanding. It is only too easy to lose nuances and half-thoughts. This is why writing is so powerful in the end. You can explain a nuance. Verbal talk can be too blunt. Written words allow you to investigate the small indirections, hesitations that go on in internal thought. And the fact is, with this whole story, there are many shadows and shades and shadowings.)
Thursday, July 31, 2014
When I write a book I select certain quotes that act as beacons. I normally put them in a notebook, circle them and when I get lost, as I usually do in any extended exploration, I return to the quotes.
They solidify the story and return me to central themes.
Journey to a Hanging took me three long and intense years to research and write. During that time I was all over the place in my perspective. It covers, of course, a very controversial - one might almost say contaminated - ground: raupatu (confiscations), killings and two very debatable hangings.
These are not my usual terrain and I found the journey - walking at night without stars - full of soul searching and at times it seemed exceedingly harsh.
During that time I kept a sheath of papers on which I typed, in large letters, some quotes that helped me keep my bearings.
I came across them just before, so here some of them are.
(I'll add below why I felt they helped me get my bearings.)
"A ghost desires only one thing: to live again." London Review of Books, 8 November 2012, The Second Life of Ghosts.
I felt that CS Volkner and Kereopa Te Rau were both ghosts in our collective imagination and both were calling, wailing if you like, to be heard again. When there are injustices, the voices never really fall silent. Silence only falls when justice is done and then a really peaceful silence falls.
'We live in an Age of Apology.' Jonathan Meades, The London Review of Books. 25 October 2012.
This is a reference to an academic text in which a collection of thinkers talked about the contemporary phenomenon in which one group of people seek to apologise for the injustices of the past. This has obvious ramifications for Aotearoa New Zealand and this particular story.
A Crown pardon - in terms of forgiveness - was awarded to Kereopa Te Rau in April of this year. But there has been no apology for the indignities on the body of Rev Volkner. Not even Rev Volkner's Church regard this as an issue.
He is, as I have said in my book, the least important person in this story.
Apology in other words can be conditional and freighted with political objectives. It depends, in the end, who you are on whether you are pardoned for your actions. In other words, some behaviour is 'understood' while other behaviour is forgotten.
"A detailed account of subsequent measures taken to punish the assassins lies not within the compass of this little work. The future historian will find ample materials for the interesting task whenever it becomes desirable to use them." James Hawthorne, A Dark Chapter in New Zealand's History, 1869, p29
I came across this quote in a fascinating pamphlet written by a settler outraged at the hopeless way the fight against Te Kooti was being waged. It was really an attack on Donald McLean and what makes it even more interesting is that the book in the Alexander Turnbull Library has McLean's handwritten comments in the margins, largely, of course, attempting to disprove the anguished, angry charges.
What I like about this quote is the actual title of the book - A Dark Chapter in New Zealand's History - which could almost have been a title for my book. But I also liked the way it sort of foretells that 'a future historian' will be looking at the same material, at a different time.
Of course different periods read the information quite differently. But a real historian attempts to see the world as contemporaries saw it. One of the weaknesses of a lot of 'Treaty' history is that it makes no attempt to get inside the heads of Pakeha of the time, while always getting into the heads of only some contemporary Maori. (Kupapas' world view is usually ignored as invalid.)Yet without an attempt to understand how people actually saw and even misunderstood their own period, the history becomes an unreal contemporary attempt to rewrite history - as it 'should have been'.
In this history everything becomes a noble fight, in one way, and on the other, an ignoble attempt to steal, rob and imprison.
As we all know from living in the present, things are confused, muddled and very unclear. People work on a basis of self interest. It is only looking back that certain patterns are picked out.
I always think: what do we not know about our own period that will invalidate a lot of what we do and think.
Be sure of it - there will be something that makes us all seem as if we lived, unbelievably, in a dream world.
We just don't know it yet.
That is history's revenge.
"There is a kind of nonsense, which was in reality a very high kind of sense." Justice Johnson on Alice in Wonderland.
In a long wet winter in Napier, during a time of economic depression, penny readings took place in the evening at the Masonic Hall. Penny readings were an attempt at entertainment, at uplifting people's mood at a time people are almost naturally depressed (wet muddy winter, hard times, a beleaguered hopeless war that seemed impossible to win.)
The price was actually sixpence so it only appealed to the relatively well off. When it began the 'nobs' of Napier and Hawke's Bay set the tone by giving readings.
Bishop William Williams read from Shakespeare's 'pound of flesh' drama - perhaps not coincidentally.
Justice Johnson, who proved to be a harsh hanging judge when he tried Kereopa Te Rau, here chose an absurdist tale. His copy of Alice in Wonderland came from the Athaenium library (the forerunner to MTG Hawke's Bay) and the copy was described as 'much thumbed'. Hawke's Bay Herald, 22 May 1871.
I chose this text as I think it paraphrases much that occurred during this time in the Supreme Court trial of Kereopa Te Rau.
There was an absurdity about it, behind which lay a deadly intent. Utu. Revenge. A primitive passion that 'civilised people' were meant to be beyond.
'The majority of people do not judge for themselves.' Editor of the Daily Telegraph in his final column before he was forced to resign. The editor was a well educated Londoner who found himself in the foundling settlement. He was insightful but also critical of Donald McLean. In the end he was chased out of town. (It is not unusual in small towns for people to turn on talented people who they feel are 'not like the rest of us.')
I kept this comment as I felt it expressed the conformity of small town life. The whole of New Zealand is, or was, a variant on 'small town' mentality, harshly opinionated and hostile to different views. Crowd behaviour dominates and individual viewpoints are ruthlessly suppressed.
I felt this insight referred to many people during the trial of Kereopa Te Rau. Most people in Napier - and Pakeha New Zealand - called for his hanging.
Only a refusnik like Colenso stood against this prevailing attitude and 'judged for himself.'
I feel this is as true today as it was then.
The majority of people do not judge for themselves.
As the editor commented sadly as he left Napier - never to return - 'Originality is a game that is dangerous to play in public.'
I feel this is as true today as it was then. There are other quotes that I will talk about later. But this is a sample of these 'signposts' I used when I felt I had lost my way.
Saturday, July 19, 2014
|At the launch. Photo by David Frost, MTG Hawke's Bay.|
I'm doing a reading in Auckland, at the Whare Wananga, Auckland Central Library, Lorne Street this coming
Tuesday evening (22 July 2014) at 6pm. Everyone welcome.
I'll be reading from one part of the book that looks at going to Hiona, Volkner's church in Opotiki and my impressions. (I'll be accompanying the talk with photographs, some of which are in the book, some of which aren't.
I'll also look at the trial of Kereopa Te Rau in Napier 1871, when Kereopa Te Rau defied his lawyer and took to the floor to try and explain his journey. It was a calculated risk.
As always when I do a talk I write across the top of the paper BREATHE.
I have to remember to keep taking breaths consciously. Otherwise my fear of public speaking overwhelms me and unconsciously I start taking short panicky breaths. It tends to be self fulfilling, as when in this state, I end up with no control of my voice and I can sound both frightened and whiney. Awful.
Hence my memo to myself. The most obvious thing in the world. Breathe.
And I have to remember what it was like for Kereopa Te Rau to speak to a room largely full of Pakeha, when he knew his life was hanging on a very slender thread. He spoke te reo and it seems a shame to me none of the journalists talked of the timbre of his voice.
At certain times this short man (5'3" - 9 stone) had been extraordinarily charismatic and had held large numbers of people in his thrall.
But finally when it mattered most - on trial for his life - he could not 'read' the audience he was talking to and his words have a strange muted vagueness to them, as if he were trying to lay a pattern very imprecisely over another pattern that he could not read - British justice, I suppose you would call it.
What Colenso called, aptly, 'a shadowy phantom' thing.
Tuesday, July 8, 2014
|Chandalier at the Old Church, Meanee. All pix David Frost MTG Hawke's Bay.|
Well, on Monday night, Journey to a Hanging was well and truly launched at the Old Church
Restaurant Meeanee. MTG Hawke's Bay assisted brilliantly with the launch, with staff members
generously donating their time and energy to give the occasion a really warm atmosphere.
I've put the talk I gave below, so you can see how I conceptualised the book
at its public birth, among friends and followers.
I was also fortunate to do some media for the book. (I'll enclose the links below.) One was a lively and
energetic interview with Kathryn Ryan on Nine to Noon, National Radio - Kathryn seemed very
involved with the subject, which was great.
The other more surprising interview was for Te Kaea, the News on Maori TV. They had sent a crew
to the book launch and did an on the spot interview afterwards. I was amazed - and gratified - to see it
occupying about five minutes on Maori TV news last night - 8 July '14 - where it was treated seriously - and with really close
The other in-depth interview I did was with Hawke's Bay TV. This is harder to find for people out of
the region, but will eventually be on Youtube.
So here is my launch speech.
"It seems especially fitting we're standing here in the body of the church that was once Sister Mary
It was from this church that Sister Aubert set out on a Thursday afternoon of January 4th 1872 and
began her walk in to Napier, to go and visit Kereopa Te Rau on the hill in Napier Prison.
He was to be hanged on the Friday and it was her wish to go and comfort the condemned man.
But we need to backtrack here, to fill in the back story.
Kereopa Te Rau was charged with the murder of the Anglican missionary with the strange Germanic
name of Carl Sylvius Volkner.
The murder happened in March 1865 at Opotiki - and it was an especially grisly murder, especially
for a traditionally tapu person - a man of God.
Volkner was first rather amateurishly hanged, then when dead, beheaded and his head was passed
into his own church where Kereopa Te Rau ate his eyes and drank his blood. His head was then
mummified - turned into a moko mokai.
Ever since then Kereopa Te Rau had been on the run, fighting battles, then fading into the
By 1871 Tuhoe were ready to sign a peace pact with the Crown. They could no longer withstand
the battering they were receiving from kupapa and colonial troops.
Part of this was an agreement to hand over Kereopa who had a 1000 pound bounty on his head.
Kereopa was captured and marched to Wairoa, then put on a boat to Napier.
The news spread around NZ - and around the world - the notorious eye eater - Kaiwhatu - was
captured at last and being brought to justice.
On Sunday 26 November 1871 the entire population of Napier waited on the wharves to see Kereopa.
He was kept below on the orders of JD Ormand and Sir Donald McLean.
Eventually - disappointed - the crowd dispersed.
The following morning Ropata Wahawaha -a Ngati Porou warrior who had once been a slave -
brought Kereopa into town.
He insisted on a triumphant march - a king brought in chains - so he marched Kereopa along
Waghorne Street, up along Shakespeare Road - then he got to Coote Road.
This led directly to the prison.
But no, Ropata wanted a triumph - he had been hunting Kereopa for many years in terribly
challenging conditions - so down Shakespeare Road they marched, a brilliant Pai Marire banner in
scarlet silk and white fluttering in the breeze, - they marched past the Govt Builidngs where
Kereopa would be tried on the corner of Shakespeare and Hastings Street - they marched along
Hastings Street - and only then along the Parade to the corner of Coote Road.
There Kereopa was handed over to Pakeha control.
He was marched up that steep incline to the prison.
But just as he entered the prison, he dropped a cut throat razor on the ground - and with bound hands
- grabbed it QUICK AS THOUGHT as a newspaper put it- and slashed his throat open.
Blood was everywhere.
The three doctors of Napier were all called.
Dr Spenser, the brilliant military doctor - famous for sewing up limbs - was first on the spot.
He sewed up Kereopa's throat - he had just missed the jugular - and brandy was administered.
Kereopa was taken to a wooden cell, placed in their alongside two Pakeha prisoners and chained to
And there Kereopa stayed, through his trial on Friday 22 Dec 1871 when he was found guilty of murder
and sentenced to death.
There he stayed through Xmas and New Year -
hearing the sound of the waves which are so clear and audible up in the prison still
hearing the band music played by the military bands
hearing the jollity and drunkenness hymns and silences
till he heard the sound of a nail being driven hard into wood
and he realised the gallows were being constructed
he was to be the first man hanged in Hawke's Bay.
At this time, when everyone local rejoiced in his capture and eagerly looked forward to his death
one man alone in the whole of NZ stood forth to defend him
that man was the remarkable William Colenso
Colenso speedily wrote a defence published in the Hawke's Bay Herald over three days calling for
he didn't argue whether Kereopa was guilty or not
he just said the enormous killings and vast confiscations which had happened in the Bay of Plenty as
utu for Volkner's killing had surely sated the desire for revenge
to be merciful is to be strong, he said
to be merciful is to be Christian
he went to comfort Kereopa in his cell
and now walking in from Meeanee we have Sister Mary Joseph Aubert who had finished helping
entertain the Catholic children of Napier who came out on drays for a special Christmas picnic
she took her bible and her beads and began walking into town
so here we have
two of the most remarkable people alive in colonial NZ
two people walking to Napier prison to comfort Kereopa in his last hours
- what happens during those last hours, ….well, you have to buy my book and see….
but let me end by saying- inside the body of this one time church
which is like being inside the whale of our shared past
this book is about New Zealand, about Hawke's Bay, about the past, about the ancestors of
some of the people who today stand in this room -
it is about the present and the way we understand AND misunderstand the past -
how we come to terms with our past - in this case a most painful episode in our short combined history -
an episode in which a missionary was killed and then a Maori prophet and warrior -
events that galvanised and divided NZ in its own town,
echoes of which travel right up to this very present day
it is only a month or so since the Crown issued pardon - in the sense of forgiveness -
to Kereopa Te Rau for his implication in the murder
so we live among its echoes
since the Crown pardoned Kereopa Te Rau two months ago -
pardoned in the sense he was forgiven
but in the book I talk of
walking at night without stars
and I used this term to describe the German migrant who came to NZ and had to try and
comprehend not only Maori culture but English culture -
both were foreign to him so he was travelling at night without the guidance of stars
whereas Kereopa Te Rau was travelling in his own country but guided by a completely new religion
which believed in talking in tongues, which believed that moko mokai - shrunken heads - could
prophecy the future, a completely new religion made up on the spot
so he was walking at night too without the guidance of stars
just as i felt, writing this book,
being pulled in different directions at different times
but also trying to be empathetic
without being conned into a false sympathy
so in the three years I spent writing the book
I travelled far and wide and looked at everything I could find out about these events and
the people who were its main characters -
and this was what i came up with in the end
there are many paths to understanding
there are many ways to see the same thing
other people might and will see things differently
and this book is a single writer's honest attempt to make his own path towards understanding -
so all in all
though this represents a book with pages and pictures, and facts, and thoughts, and intuitions
and I hope insights
in the end this is all it amounts to
there are many paths to understanding
and this book is one of them.
Kathryn Ryan interview on Nine to Noon, National Radio
A link to the audio can be found here: http://www.radionz.co.nz/national/programmes/ninetonoon/audio/20140837/historian-reinvestigates-1872-hanging-of-kereopa-te-rau
See below for Te Kaea, News on Maori Television 8 July 2014.
Latest episode. Te Kāea. Originally aired on Tuesday 8 July 2014. News programme with local, national and ...
Monday, June 30, 2014
It was Janet Malcolm, the remarkable nonfiction author, who questioned the gullible relationship between a person being interviewed and the journalist. The journalist will use his or her wiles to pretend to be the interviewee's friend, in order to find out what the journalist wants to know. Then they ruthlessly use whatever sentences they want, discarding the rest, to build their own 'story'. There is no objectivity, and indeed Malcolm says objectivity can, at best, be a rhetorical device (a pretence).
It is up to a journalist to balance ethics, credibility and a sense of the true story.
I say all this in reference to a ground breaking article that appeared in Saturday's NZ Herald a fortnight ago (21/06/14).
This was partially - very partially based - on an interview I had with Herald journalist Andrew Stone.
The fact is I had in effect created the news story, which broke the news that Kereopa Te Rau had been pardoned.
I had contacted Linda Herrick, book editor of the Herald, asking if the Herald was doing anything on 'Journey to a Hanging' whose arrival in book shops was imminent. She told me she had passed the book onto Andrew Stone, a news journalist at the Herald.
I appreciated the fact the book was moving from the book pages to news, so I contacted him by email on 13 June 2014: I told him my book was coming out soon and this was the 'hook' I dangled.
I wondered about - how do you write about a sore spot in the national psyche in minefield of 'The Age of Apology'.
On one hand you have horrors, like eating eyeballs, turning a missionary into a moko mokai and a show trial and a retributive hanging of the man held responsible - and on the other you have a contemporary sensibility which is couched in 'saying sorry' for the mistakes of the past.
It's a dynamite field to occupy and writing the book gave me sleepless nights...The subject area was gruesome...the iwi weren't playing ball and The Office of Treaty Settlements rang me up and asked me to stop blogging about a pardon for Kereopa Te Rau as it was so controversial...
How do you juggle all these contemporary and historical factors - iwi sensibility, your sense of the importance of following your own path...and making a call. Or would it be an easier ride not to make a call and just 'say sorry'.
This was followed up two days later by a further email from me.
I think I left out the most interesting detail.
In early April 2014 Kereopa Te Rau received a pardon from the Crown but this fact received no publicity at all that I know of.
It was carefully buried within the Ngati Rangiwewehi Claims Settlement Bill.
My question is: what is a pardon worth if nobody knows anything about it?
The silence seems to underline the fact the event still has potentially explosive echoes in the present.
Or is it 'just unimportant'?
What I was implying here was that the silence that surrounded the Crown pardon of Kereopa Te Rau - now two months old - was not accidental.
It had not become public because the feelings round it were still raw and Kereopa's iwi - and Crown - did not know how it would play out in public.
I called it a 'pardon by stealth' and questioned its real value, given the silence which surrounded it.
Stone contacted me:
We’ve got your book. I’ve had a peek. It’s terrific. Can I call you abt it, in the next day or so? By the way the pardon of Kereopa passed under the radar. So does that make it two pardons for Carl Sylvius? And if they didn’t do it, then who did?
He arranged to call me at 3pm on Wednesday 18th June. He said he would do an article for the coming Saturday. When I demurred, hoping it could come out when the book was actually in the bookshops (4 July) - my side of the quid pro quo - he said he 'was going away on holiday'.
So it was this Saturday or never.
He rang me on the Wednesday a little late and we talked for over 45 minutes. He said, inter alia, he had spoken with Mrs Te Rangikaheke Bidois (he struggled to pronounce her name) - iwi spokesperson for Ngati Rangiwewehi (Kereopa's iwi) and she said, she was 'just wondering as she drove along that morning about the fact there had been no publicity about the pardon'.
I gathered by the end of the conversation he had read my book (not 'peeked' as he said in his email.) Towards the end of the conversation he called the book 'a terrific read' and he seemed to be full of praise. Perhaps I in my turn was being gullible…
He questioned me on many different things and I answered to the best of my ability.
I was very aware of being cautious in my utterances, and even-handed. But we did, in the end, get down to tin tacks and I explained to him that - to the best of my knowledge - Kereopa Te Rau had acknowledged responsibility for the killing of CS Volkner, although he did not literally hang CS Volkner.
I also explained that my understanding of the pardon was not that it implied Kereopa Te Rau's innocence - rather that the pardon was an act of forgiveness - an attempt to heal the wounds of the past.
This points to the ambiguous position of the Treaty processes which have to be both a truth and reconciliation mission - yet the fact is these two aspects - truth - historical truth - and reconciliation are not always mutually compatible.
Reconciliation points towards apology and the embrace of empathy. Truth points in a harsher, pricklier direction - what actually happened when and in its true sequence.
I opened the Saturday Herald with some anticipation - but also trepidation. Soon enough, as I sped-read the article, I felt the familiar sense of being betrayed. The article seemed to bear no relationship to the private conversation I had had with Stone. While he had seemed enthusiastic about my book in conversation , in print it was introduced as an 'also ran' - 'For author and film maker Peter Wells, the Crown's pardon came too late to be included in his new book'… Moreover it became clear from the way the entire case was being presented he had swallowed hook line and sinker the ahistorical Treaty and iwi presentation of Kereopa Te Rau's case.
Don't get me wrong. I think there were many wrong things in the December 1871 trial of Kereopa Te Rau in Napier. But the case for Kereopa's 'innocence', as outlined in the Herald, was a muddled mixture of conjecture and post hoc conclusions.
'Kereopa arrived in the Bay of Plenty with a heavy heart and possible revenge on his mind. The year before his wife and two daughters died near Te Awamutu after British troops burned a whare where missionaries told the family they were safe. The next day, in another Waikato siege, Kereopa's sister was killed.'
This story is terrible. The only problem - and it is an enormous one - is that Kereopa Te Rau never once attributed this as a source of his actions. (He never once mentioned it.) Even when he was on trial for murder - and he decided to take the stand and defend himself - he never mentioned what would have been a very clear vindication of his actions.
What are we to make of this? That he was a warrior and disdained to mention personal feelings? Or is it significant that this story only emerged many years after he died.
It never came from his own lips. It was never talked about at the time. It may have been a deep and private hurt. But as for it being a motivation - we need more evidence of such a terrible event.
What for example are the names of his wife and two daughters? Even in the Treaty document they remain unnamed. I know all my ancestors who were alive in 1865, I know their names and birthplace. It is not that long ago, after all, in terms of family memory.
These are small but significant details. I want to be persuaded with fact.
The second inconsistency follows soon after (and their arrangement has a nice tidy mathematical quality.) 'Volkner had sent Governor Grey a plan of the pa where the family burned to death.' Earlier Stone said 'the churchman was viewed with deep suspicion because he had come to be seen as a Government spy.'
Both these statements are drawing post hoc conclusions which bear little relationship to how people saw things at the time. In 1975 - a century after the killing - an Auckland University historian Paul Clark made a discovery. CS Volkner had sent letters to Governor Grey outlining Whakatohea's suspectability to joining in the war with Waikato. He did send a plan of a pa of Rangiaowhia as given to him by a kupapa - a friendly Maori. It was inside this pa that the alleged burning to death took place.
People ever since have drawn direct lines between the existence of these letters and used them as an excuse for CS Volkner's killing. It lends a kind of primitive justice to an otherwise inexplicably violent act. CS Volkner was discovered to be a spy and was killed as a response to this discovery.
The only problem with this is again - evidence. In the runanga the night before CS Volkner was killed, there was effectively a long night's discussion on whether or not to kill Volkner. Not once was spying ever mentioned as a motive. The burning to death at Rangiaowhia and the pa plan certainly never featured.
In fact the discussion was really about which god was most powerful - the new Pai Marire religion, with its ability to consume an entire tribe in a sort of Game of Thrones magic fire - or the older Anglican/Christian God which was now yoked to the British army? Which one would reign supreme?
The priest arbitrating this dispute or discussion was Kereopa Te Rau, who presented himself as an awesome fiery figure full of magic powers and divination. Whakatohea wanted to present the other Anglican missionary present - TS Grace -as a sacrifice. He was, after all, not 'their own' missionary. But as a test - to prove their bowing before the awesome power of the new god - Kereopa Te Rau insisted Whakatohea hand over 'their own' missionary - C.S. Volkner.
So at the very least Kereopa Te Rau was the person insisting on the sacrifice of CS Volkner.
A complication is that Kereopa did not actually join the hanging party. He says he stayed inside Hiona, Volkner's church. So although he may have inspired the sacrifice and took part in the ceremonies around the beheaded head, plucking out its eyes, he did not literally haul CS Volkner up on the rope.
But when Volkner's head was either passed to him or thrown in the window, wrapped in cotton or linen, he then extracted the eyes and ceremonially drank Volkner's blood and asked or demanded that the congregation do likewise.
Stone says Maori buried Volkner but it was in fact British sailors along with friendly Maori who dug Volkner's grave and quickly buried him, the sailors carving a simple wooden plaque.
All this may seem pinpricking detail. But these small indirections or inconsistencies build up to present an essentially false picture.
So what does it all mean?
It means the headline 'Pardoned at last: Chief cleared of 1865 Murder' is not literally true. My understanding - from the Treaty office - was that the pardon was by way of forgiveness - an act of understanding and empathy. The article tries to assert that Kereopa Te Rau did not eat Volkner's eyes - it becomes 'the claim that Kereopa had removed Volkner's eyes with his fingers and eaten them'. This is absurd. There were so many eye witnesses and he himself admitted it to various people, including Suzanne Aubert.
In fact he believed the eye eating was the act that so inflamed public opinion against him - rather than the death of CS Volkner overall. He also said that he knew the eye-eating would have fateful consequences when he almost choked on one of Volkner's pale grey blue eyes.
I suppose my big picture feelings are these: it is apt to forgive Kereopa Te Rau and his actions. He did not have a fair trial in 1871. He was acting within his understanding of the time. I believe he should be pardoned.
But I also feel this as strongly, in terms of natural justice. Maori believe it is very important to return moko mokai (shrunken heads) to their whanau. The government has spent much money on groups of Maori travelling to overseas museums to bring back these heads, which are then granted the grace of a proper burial.
Kereopa Te Rau left Opotiki with the head of CS Volkner. Regardless of whether he actually killed Volkner or not he regarded Volkner's head as his own trophy. He saw the head as a godhead (since Pai Marire believed that shrunken heads had a sort of divine power and that voices and thoughts came out of them.)
In other words CS Volkner's head was last seen in Kereopa's hands.
I believe it is the other half of the settling of the wounds of the past that Kereopa Te Rau's iwi regard it as a responsibility that they locate and return the moko mokai to the remains of Volkner's body at Opotiki.
Then justice is done, justice is seen to be done. All sides can rest easy and a natural balance of justice is restored.